Several Native bands, particularly in northern Canada, did not sign treaties during negotiations in the late nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth centuries. One such band is the Lubicon Cree of the Peace River area of northern Alberta. This band originally applied for a settlement in 1933, and, in 1939, the federal government agreed to terms in which the band was to receive some 25 square miles of land in accordance with a population count of 127 individuals. The government neglected to survey the site, however, in order to await the results of a judicial inquiry into band lists. During the 1950s, the discovery of oil and gas in the area further complicated the land issues, and it was not until 1989 that public agitation and protest by the Lubicon people produced any sort of settlement. That year the government recognized a small segment of the Lubicon people as the "Woodland Cree" and agreed to create a reserve of 142 square kilometres and to grant compensation amounting to approximately $49 million. Other members of the Lubicon people have refused to recognize this breakaway band, however, and further claims still await settlement.

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