The relocation of Native populations was not just a Canadian federal government preoccupation. In 1948, the Newfoundland government initiated the removal of the Innu people of Old Davis Inlet to a site some 200 miles to the north. This effort to transform the caribou-hunting Innu into fishers and woodcutters was unsuccessful, and the dissatisfied Innu returned to their home within two years. Learning little from this failed experiment, the federal government focused its attention on the Innu and, in 1967, imposed a relocation that took them to a geographically closer but equally remote post, a nearby island also known as Davis Inlet. There the caribou hunters were again encouraged to take up fishing. Both governments had rationalized these imposed relocation efforts on the grounds that the caribou herds were fading, an assertion the Innu disputed. As always, the assistance that had been promised the relocatees to aid their adjustment was slow in coming. In the meantime, social problems at Davis Inlet increased dramatically, and incidents of suicide, domestic violence, alcoholism, poor health, and gas sniffing by youth skyrocketed. Innu demands to be relocated back to a place of their own choosing on the mainland won wide support when a gas-sniffing epidemic at Davis Inlet became a media cause célèbre in 1993. Eventually a relocation agreement was concluded in 1996, but the social problems of Davis Inlet have not yet been satisfactorily resolved.

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