The Social Credit government of Alberta responded to the Ewing Commission's recommendations regarding the Métis population of the province by passing the Métis Population Betterment Act in 1938. The Act established 12 locations for Métis agricultural communities, of which 8 remain in existence, and established procedures for settling individuals on their land plots within the settlements. The Act was unique in that these terms were established through consultation with representatives of the Métis community, but later revisions of the Act did not continue that trend. The eight settlement areas now encompass a total of 539,446 hectares of land under lease to the Métis, but the Métis Association of Alberta, established in the 1930s and reorganized in 1940, has spearheaded continual attempts to persuade the government to increase Métis autonomy and control over the lands. The Alberta settlements have become a type of homeland for the Métis people, although only a relatively small proportion of the population actually resides in the colonies.

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