Between Treaty 11, the last of the Numbered Treaties signed in 1921, and the comprehensive land claims of the latter half of the century, stands the aberration of the Williams Treaties of 1923. These agreements addressed claims pressed by the Mississauga living along Lake Ontario and the Chippewa in the Lake Simcoe/Georgian Bay region. Treaty arrangements made in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries with these peoples had included land surrenders, but, as the land was not surveyed, some confusion remained. Native requests for a settlement began in 1869, but, despite government receptiveness to the claims themselves, the first official response came only in 1914. Because Crown lands were under provincial control in Ontario, these negotiations also required provincial participation. The recognized validity of the claims by all parties led to a speedy settlement once the three managed to get together. The result was the Williams Treaties of 1923, agreements that included financial compensation for the land adjustments made under them. There were no provisions for reserves, as these had been allotted long before. Nor was there any consideration of Aboriginal rights. The Williams Treaties, unlike the Numbered Treaties, were largely settlements of outstanding details rather than the negotiations of a relationship.

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