The Northwest Angle Treaty, otherwise known as Treaty 3, encompassed a significant portion of western Ontario and parts of southeastern Manitoba. The Ojibwa (Saulteaux) bands of the area were well aware that their lands were very valuable to the government as the most direct route to the Red River settlement. During the Red River Resistance, the government had sought a right of way through these lands, and afterwards realized the necessity of an all-Canadian route west. Both the Dawson Route-and the proposed Canadian Pacific Railway-would have to cross Ojibwa territory. There was also some understanding by the Natives of the value of their land in mineral potential. This knowledge allowed the Native negotiators to push the government to offer more generous terms than had been previously extended. In fact, the signatories of Treaty 3 had already turned away two attempts at negotiation by 1873. The new terms set aside reserves based on 640 acres per family of five, an increase from acreage calculations in the first treaties. Treaty participants were also awarded a gift of $12 on signing, and an annuity of $5 per person, an increase of $2 on that initially allowed those adherents of Treaties 1 and 2. In addition, the chiefs and headmen of the Ojibwa were to receive $25 and $15 annuities respectively, and a further $1,500 per year was to be allotted for hunting and fishing supplies to continue the traditional livelihood based on those practices. Negotiators also ensured that terms for agricultural supplies and livestock, demanded by the Natives, were included in the treaty, in order to avoid another fiasco like the Outside Promises of Treaty 1.

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