Preface

French explorer Jacques Cartier is shown meeting with Iroquois at Stadacona

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, First Nations peoples in Canada continued patterns of resistance to the Europeanization of the Americas that began with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. This resistance, while taking many forms, was rooted in the oldest and most primal confli...

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Historiography

Until the 1970s, scholars demonstrated little interest in describing the history of encounter between First Nations and non-Aboriginals in Canada. When they addressed the subject at all, which was rarely, historians tended to depict Aboriginal peoples as folkloric curiosities who had quickly been...

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1850s - 1914

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The late 1840s and 1850s were a time of significant constitutional reform in British North America. Ideas of free trade and liberalism were becoming widely accepted in Great Britain, challenging older ideas about an empire based on the economic th...

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1914 - 1945

Representative of the Indian Association of Alberta, founded in 1939, in Ottawa

First Nations were as dramatically transformed by their participation in the First World War as were the larger societies in Canada and the United States. Although it was determined that Registered Indians, as wards of the state, could not be cons...

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1945 - 2000

Canadian activists show support for the American Indian Movement's standoff with the American government at Wounded Knee, South Dakota

The nature of the fascist enemy faced by Allied forces in the Second World War necessitated some change in Native policy. Certainly an effort had to be made to exorcise from Canadian Indian policy those elements that seemed rooted in ideological s...

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Conclusion

First Nations activists have taken a variety of approaches to finding solutions to these many challenges. For some, full equality of place within the Canadian state would ensure Aboriginal peoples the tools necessary to protect their interests. For others, Aboriginal peoples constitute sovereign...

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Further Readings

Abel, Kerry. Drum Songs: Glimpses of Dene History. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1993.

Carter, Sarah. Lost Harvests: Prairie Indian Reserve Farmers and Government Policy. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1990.

Cardinal, Harold. The Unjust Society: The Tragedy of Canada's Indians...

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Written By

Anthony J. Hall
Professor of Globalization Studies
University of Lethbridge

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